Monday, May 14, 2018
Sunday was Mother’s Day, one of the most widely observed and celebrated holidays in our culture. People of all ethnic groups, colors, and even religious denominations observe it; among Christians it is the day with the 3rd highest church attendance after only Christmas and Easter. As a major holiday it is all over our popular culture. TV shows have plots that revolve around it. There are songs about both the day and the person known as “Mother” in just about every genre, and radio stations play many of them in the week leading up to the holiday. Comedians tell endless “mom” jokes. Even politicians refer to it in political ads, thanking their own moms and trying to appeal to the moms of voters. And as it is a major holiday, it is very commercialized and has a huge economic impact. It is one of the biggest days in any given year for the sales of flowers, candy, and greeting cards. More long distance calls are made on Mother’s Day than on any other day. Restaurants make a lot of money on the day, especially on breakfasts and brunches. It is truly a big deal in our culture. But where did this day come from? How did it come to be? Why does it exist?
The idea of honoring “mothers” is not just an American idea, and it is not really recent. Ancient peoples in many parts of the world had a variety of observances that paid tribute to the idea of fertility, birth, and mothering. The ancient Greeks and Romans had festivals that celebrated Mother Goddesses such as Rhea and Cybele, who gave birth to various gods and represented the power of divine fertility. These were important, powerful ideas, and the celebrations of these holidays lasted for days in the ancient world.
Roman, Greek and many other polytheistic religions were eventually eclipsed by monotheistic ones. But many of these important ideas found ways of being expressed in monotheistic beliefs. While there is no “Mother’s Day” in Islam, children are regularly instructed to pay honor to their mothers. Some Jews honor Rachel, Jacob’s most beloved wife, on the eleventh day of Cheshvan as the symbolic “mother” of the Israeli household and nation. Some early Christians took to celebrating the Virgin Mary during Lent as a way of honoring a divine mother-the mother of Jesus. The idea of “birth” and “mother,” then, are important human concerns. These need to be accounted for and recognized in every religion.
In 16th century England that recognition turned into something called, “Mothering Sunday.” Initially a day to honor the Mother Church and the Virgin Mary, it eventually came to include children being told to pick wild flowers to give to and pay tribute to their own earthly mothers. This represented an expansion of focus; not only divine mothers were looked at with honor. Earthly mothers came to be seen as representatives of the divine order, and they could be acknowledged also. The American idea of Mother’s Day draws most directly from this.
Two women, Julia Ward Howe and Anna Jarvis, are considered the "mothers" of our present celebration of Mother’s Day. Howe, an activist on many social issues and the composer of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, wanted a day for women to be listened to as a way to establish peace. Women gave birth to all the men who died in wars on either side, she argued, so they had a special need to both be active and be listened to as a way of ending war. In her famous “Mother’s Day Proclamation” (1870) she argued for and later established a “Mother’s Peace Day” to be celebrated each year. The idea caught on and was observed in several parts of the United States. But it did not grow to be a national holiday. Perhaps it was too political.
Anna Jarvis, born in West Virginia, had a beloved mother who was deeply religious and involved in social issues via her church. Ann Reeves Jarvis had worked as a nurse during the Civil War, and like Howe, she believed in peace. She once spoke about wishing for a day when the work and contributions of mothers to humanity would be recognized and celebrated. Anna remembered this, and it inspired her. In 1908, 3 years after her mother’s death, she sponsored a memorial service in the town of Grafton, West Virginia for her mom and all the moms who attended the service. She also provided white carnations, now the symbol of Mother’s Day, for all the mothers who attended the service. Her mother’s words had become a mission for Anna; mothers needed to be recognized. After the memorial service she began to organize nationally. She called on people to write legislators and influential people to encourage them to lobby for a day to honor all mothers. And somehow, state by state, it began to happen. By 1911 most states in the country had some type of yearly holiday recognizing mothers. She and her supporters then turned their attention to the national stage. Again, it worked. In 1914 President Woodrow Wilson signed the proclamation that established the second Sunday in May as Mother’s Day throughout the nation. Anne Reeve Jarvis’ wish had become reality.
Mother’s Day is a major part of US culture now, and it is firmly established. Ironically, Jarvis came to dislike Mother’s Day, or more specifically, the way it came to be celebrated. The commercialization of the day, first by the greeting card industry and then florists and candy manufacturers, angered her. She spoke out against this regularly, and even considered trying to rescind the holiday. A further irony was that as she aged, Jarvis needed hospital care. It was people connected to the greeting card and florist industries who paid for her hospital stays in West Chester, PA. She died in 1948 and is buried locally in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd.
Regardless of what one thinks about how the day is observed these days, Mother’s Day has become an important day in our culture and in the lives of many people. And it resonate with the same reasons the ancients celebrated all those centuries ago. We all begin with a birth; that is how we start. Yes, sperm and egg need to unite to bring that birth about. And there are many ways the uniting of those two can happen. But when you come down to it, we are all ultimately the result of a mother carrying and delivering us. It has been that way for centuries and centuries. While we may understand a lot about the mechanics of how it happens, it is nonetheless wondrous. It is both ordinary and worthy of being honored. I hope Mother’s Day, however you observed it, was good for you. And thanks to all of you who are mothers.
Sunday, March 18, 2018
Mike is an old friend of mine who can be very wise, and one of my favorite sayings of his is, “If you want to make God laugh, tell him you have plans.” Last weekend for me was a perfect example of that saying- on steroids. The plan for last weekend was simple-really simple. We had finally secured tickets to the Smithsonian Museum of African American History and Culture for Friday, March 2, and we were also registered to be part of a winter bird walk Saturday. March 3 at Eastern Neck Wildlife Refuge outside of Chestertown, MD one of our favorite towns which also has two of our favorite restaurants. It would all combine into a wonderful weekend out of Philly and away from regular life. We would start Thursday in Baltimore, so we would not have a Friday with a long drive down to DC, hours spent in the museum, and then having to drive another hour and a half to Chestertown. Great plan, well thought out, solid. Routes had been mapped out by Google Maps, and we knew what time we would leave to get the weekend started. Thursday morning came, and we were ready to go.
We spent Thursday at a hotel at BWI Airport and ate at Olive Grove, one of our favorite restaurants in the Linthicum, MD area. Our wonderful weekend away was off to a great start and we were psyched. But the truth of Mike’s saying started making itself felt subtly and shortly after we awoke. The first indication that things were not going to be as we had planned came when the rain, wind and snowstorm that hit last Friday caused all of the Smithsonian museums-indeed all of DC- to shut down that morning. DC was pretty much locked down, and we had to re-think our Friday. No problem; Baltimore is home to the Reginald Lewis Museum of African American History in Maryland, a great museum that I have loved for years. It is just off Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, and its main permanent exhibit uses photos, charts, excerpts from diaries, maps, models, and artifacts to show how people of African descent have been involved in every aspect of life in Maryland, from interactions with Native Americans in the 1500’s up to the current day. I always find something new in that exhibit, and it is always worth seeing again. The museum also had two wonderful changing exhibits: Reflections: An Intimate Portrait of Iconic African Americans, and Freedom: Emancipation Quilted and Stitched. Reflections is a photo exhibit by photographer Terrance Reese who wanted to get to know his subjects by photographing them in the rooms in their dwellings that mean and say a lot about them. The focus is at first on the rooms-each subject’s portraits are hidden in a reflected image in a mirror in the room. But in looking closely at the rooms, the search to find the reflected images takes on on journeys into and around the details of people’s bedrooms, studies, workspaces, kitchens, living rooms, and parlors and provides great insight into how these people lived and saw themselves. The 1500 word captions Reese composed also gave you a sense of who these people were and what they did. Some of them, such as Gordon Parks and activist Daisy Bates, were quite familiar to me. Others, though, such as activists Esther and James Jackson and journalist Marvel Cooke, were new people to me. But as I looked at the photos all of them came alive in a new way to me, and I learned a lot about each of them. It was both a powerful exhibit and a unique way of looking at people. And we had not planned on seeing it.
Freedom: Emancipation Quilted and Stitched is a series of story quilts done by Joan Gathier, a gifted quilter who sees the form as a way of telling important stories, both personal and beyond, and also as a way of drawing people together to make powerful statements. From her personal reflections of life in the decades from the 19340’s to the 1990’s, to her examination of how people in and around Baltimore reacted to and took part in Barack Obama’s campaign, her work just sang. Gaither used established traditional quilting stiches, forms and shapes combined with original design approaches to produce works of stunning complexity, beauty, and power. My wife, who is a quilter, was awestruck, as was I. I studied each quilt for a while, and it was a joyous, moving and exciting exhibition.
So we had made changes in our plans, and happily so. The visit to the Lewis was wonderful and inspiring, and I was sort of glad for the switch in plans. Then it was time to leave Baltimore and drive south towards Chestertown. And that is where Mike’s words really hit home. It is normally a two-and-a-half-hour drive from Baltimore to Chestertown. Four hours later we were stuck in a line of very slowly moving traffic on route 50 and listening to the news that the Bay Bridge, the link across the Chesapeake Bay toward Chestertown, was closed- again. For the third time. We were surrounded by the snow, wind and rainstorm and had only driven some 50 miles. We decided to try to re-trace our route, go north around the Bay, and get to Chestertown that way. But the lines of traffic heading north were as long if not longer as the ones we left on route 50. It was clear that was not going to work. After another hour and half, we decided to turn around and head back to Philly.
We thought having Google Maps on our phone would be a big help to us-it updates routes regularly and suggests better, faster routes. But almost everyone now has Google Maps on their phones; what was at 6PM the fastest route somewhere quickly became the most crowded one by 6:15PM. And we were again in another miles-long jam. We stopped at a gas station, filled up and got a snack, and that was good because the storm continued unabated and we were in a number of never-ending jams for hours. The Philly area may have been spanked by that storm, but Eastern Maryland got absolutely, royally smacked. Over a quarter of a million people lost power in the Baltimore area alone. Hundreds of power lines and trees were knocked down, damaging houses and vehicles and blocking roads. Winds of 60-70 miles an hour battered homes, tearing off roofs and shingles. Every bridge in the eastern portion of the state was closed at some point on Friday afternoon and evening as tractor trailers crossing bridges were blown onto their sides. I-95 was closed three different times. We may have had plans and even had technology with us. But the sheer power and force of nature ruled the day. Fortunately, my wife and I travel very well together, even during hard times, and we managed to support and comfort each other without losing our tempers. And some 11 hours after we first left Baltimore for the wonderful Chestertown, MD we limped into our driveway in Mt. Airy, exhausted, hungry and very, very grateful.
I gave Mike a call on Sunday and shared our little adventure with him. He laughed and told us how his place in Abington had a tree down in the yard, some minor roof damage, and had lost power for a few hours. We spoke of our gratitude that it was not any worse for either of us and thought about people who lost homes and more and still had no power. And we thought about those who were homeless during all of this and had little or no shelter. And we once again realized that for all of our human smarts and intelligence and technical knowledge, we are but small players on a much bigger and much broader stage. And that broader stage will do whatever it is going to do, humans be damned. Yes, we affect nature in many ways; we may be making serious changes to it. But in the end, on the broader stage, we are almost irrelevant. We can make changes in nature only in small ways Nature will be here long after we a species are gone. In the final run, we are not really in control. And nature finds its ways to remind us of that. Hopefully we can listen and respond. For as another friend of mine, Kevin, once said, “With nature, the game is never over. It is always the bottom of the ninth, and nature always has the last at bat.” I hope the storm did not cause you too much difficulty.
(Reginald Lewis Museum http://lewismuseum.org/
Dr. Joan Gathier https://www.joangaither.net/about
Project Home https://projecthome.org/ )
Tuesday, February 13, 2018
“We are humans, and that means we are symbol making beings. And symbols can move us as much as or more than facts" Anonymous history teacher
“Symbols are the imaginative signposts of life.” Margot Asquith
“In most cases, a good story connected to a strong symbol will last much longer and have more effect than any collection of mere facts”
Mac George Bundy, advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson
STORY AND SYMBOL: WHAT IT MEANS TO BE HUMAN
This week we celebrate Valentine’s Day, a day dedicated to the ideas of true and romantic love. As in any culturally significant observance there are rites, behaviors, and symbols that mark the occasion. We are expected to tell people we care about that we love them, to give cards called “valentines” to people we care for, and ideally to play special music, to have special romantic meals, and to spend “romantic times” with someone. Cartoon hearts are seen everywhere, and the day is supposed to be all about the expression of love and togetherness. Of course, we live in a capitalistic and highly commercialized civilization, so there is always an economic interest behind any such cultural observance. Americans spend more money on Valentine’s Day than on any other single holiday except Christmas. According to the website Business Pundit, we spent over $15 billion dollars on the holiday in 2011, more than on Father’s and Mother’s Day combined. The cards, the dinners, the chocolate, and the flowers all add up. But to have reached that economic point, Valentine’s Day had to first be accepted as an important cultural idea. It needed to be embraced by us. And like any other strong cultural occasion, that means this day has to be wrapped in story and symbol.
The most accepted story about Valentine’s Day traces its origins to a Roman priest by the name of Valentine. In the late third century ACE the Roman emperor Claudius was engaged in a series of unpopular and costly military campaigns, and he was having a hard time getting men to join the Roman armies. Claudius believed that Roman men were unwilling to join the army because of their strong attachment to their wives and families, so he summarily banned all marriages and engagements in Rome. Valentine defied Claudius and continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret. When what Valentine was doing was discovered, Claudius had him beheaded on February 14, probably in the year 278 A.C.E. He was later made a saint, became a martyr for the Catholic Church, and became associated with romantic love and marriage. Supposedly he wrote notes to people while in prison, signing them, “From your Valentine.” Thus was a story and a tradition born.
Historians know that there really was a St. Valentine. But historians also know that there were at least three saints who were named Valentine. The Catholic Encyclopedia lists three martyrs with that name, and all are connected to a date in February. While that may seem strange to us, it is really not that surprising. Valentine, meaning, “having valor, righteousness, and strength,” was not that uncommon a name for Roman boys at the time. Just as happens now, parents then often gave children names that meant something: an ideal or hope. Historians also know that at that time there was a big February celebration in Rome called the Feast of Lupercalia. It was a pre-Roman pastoral festival dedicated to health, cleansing, renewal, and fertility. As a part of the occasion, the names of single Roman women were put into a box. Single men randomly picked a name out of the box and they were then allowed to romance the woman whose name they had drawn. When Christianity became the state religion of Rome many of these ancient Roman festivals were outlawed and/or converted into Christian fetes. In 496 ACE Pope Gelasius decided to put an end to the Feast of Lupercalia; he declared that February 14 would thereafter be celebrated as St Valentine’s Day, giving the day of his martyrdom a new meaning. People were to exchange simple gifts with loved ones such as grain, messages and flowers. The story of Saint Valentine sacrificing his life for love became a widespread and popular one, and he and the date of February 14 became forever associated with gift giving in the name of romance and love.
Eventually the story of Valentine’s devotion to true love became joined to the one thing all great stories need: a symbol. The heart has been important as a symbol since the time of the ancient Egyptians. They saw it as the most important organ of the body. This was the place in the body where wisdom, emotions, personality and more were all joined. They also believed that it was an important vehicle through which gods spoke to humans. Yes, they knew about the chambers of the heart and that blood circulated through the heart; they actually performed surgery that removed the heart. But the circulation of blood was not the most important job of the heart to them; its supposed link to all things emotional and intellectual was.
Greek and Roman cultures drew heavily from Egypt, so the heart became important to them as well. It was associated with emotions such as love, and by the 5th century BCE symbols on coins and in writings depicted the heart looking somewhat as it does on our Valentine’s Day cards, like a fat rounded ”V” with two joined curves at the top. Some historians say that particular shape was chosen because it looked like the seed pod of a plant called silphium, a plant used as a medicine and as a contraceptive in the ancient world. Others say it came about as an attempt by early graphic designers to represent what the heart looked like in early medical texts. Regardless, by the time of the Renaissance that shape had become a symbol of love throughout Europe. And as Europeans went to other continents, they took their symbols with them. That heart shape eventually became associated with love in most parts of the world. This hshape now abounds on all those valentine cards, in the design of boxes of chocolate, in TV commercials, and all over just about anything connected with love. The story had found its symbol, and the two would be forever linked.
The use of the heart as a symbol for love shows us just how powerful and persistent a given symbol can be, even in the face of contrary fact. In the 1640’s William Harvey put forth the notion that the heart was a muscle, and that its primary role was to keep blood circulating in our bodies; it had no connection to anything emotional or intellectual. By the middle of the 18th century that had become fairly common medical knowledge, and by the mid-20th century that was being widely taught in junior high school biology classes. We all know this as fact. Yet despite all this factual knowledge, we still associate the heart with love. We know that emotions are generated in the brain-we now even know that certain specific things can trigger a given emotion in a particular region of the brain. But our language and common ways of talking regularly ignores what we know to be true. We still say, “I’m heartbroken,” when we are disappointed in love. Or we say, “My heart is heavy with loss” when we acknowledge the death of a loved one. We place our hands over our heart when we say the Pledge of Allegiance. Our "hearts are lifted,” when we feel our mood dramatically improve, and are “downhearted” when the opposite happens. We still talk and think as if all these emotional things are connected to that muscle that keeps our blood flowing despite our knowing the facts. We do not say, “My brain is lifted when I am happy,” or, “It is with a heavy brain that I bring you this sad news.” And we definitely do not know a place on Lonely Street called “Brainbreak Hotel.” It is the “heart” we relentlessly talk about in such situations. And more knowledge or more education will probably not change that. We have our story and we have our symbol, damnit, and we’re sticking to them.
In all our celebrations and rituals, then, we can always see this link between story and symbol playing out. As humans we need that interaction between the two; that is where our emotions get touched, where our memories come alive, and where we can join together with other people. A good story with a good symbol helps us make sense of the world, and it also move us, whether it is on the political front, in movies, in art, in literature, in romance, or whatever. We create stories and symbols, and the joining of them is one of the things that mark us as humans-that strange animal that uses these things to try to interpret the world. We need them to make a space for ourselves in this world and to exist comfortably in it. Yes, we are also rational, and the rational side of our brain gets us through a lot and helps us greatly. Our rationality has helped us figure out important things about the universe, solve problems, create impressive inventions, design social and political systems, and much, much more. But we cannot or should not overlook how much we still depend on story and symbol to find our place in the world. If they can be linked to fact, it is so much the better. But even if they can’t, we still make regular use of them in figuring out the world and navigating this thing called life. They give us a way to find a place to stand. We have to use the two of them; we have to. After all, we are human, and this is what humans do.
Friday, January 12, 2018
Monday, January 15th marks the 32nd national observance of the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King’s birth. This year the holiday is observed on his actual birthday, which I always find somehow pleasing. With the Federal law mandating us to observe national holidays on Mondays, we sometimes forget when a person was really born, and I think we lose something when that happens. Initially, Ididn’t favor a “King Holiday.” I thought a more powerful and effective tribute would be if people just took January 15th off on their own and did something appropriate-sort of a nationwide act of civil disobedience. That did not happen, so I was feeling nervous in 1986 when the holiday was first observed. I feared that we would soon see a parade of “Martin Luther King Day Sales” in department and furniture stores and in auto showrooms; we would blow right past the messages embodied by his life and by his actions. But before that could happen Georgia Representative John Lewis and PA Senator Harris Wofford co-authored the King Holiday and Service Act. Both men had marched and worked with Dr. King, and the act they wrote encouraged Americans to honor the holiday by performing acts of service in honor of Dr. King. It was signed into law in 1994, and the idea caught on. Numerous civic organizations, cities, and towns all over the country developed volunteer activities for people of all ages, ranging from feeding the homeless, to repairing school playgrounds, to fixing up houses, planting gardens, and more. 32 years later the holiday is still seen as “The Martin Luther King Day of Service,” and Philadelphia continues to lead the nation both in the number of service opportunities offered AND in the number of participants. My fears, I am glad to say, were not realized.
King, of course, stands in the nation’s mind as the symbol of the Civil Rights Movement. His quotes about the power of love in the face of hatred and about nonviolence being the way to meet injustice are often quoted around the world. His famous “I Have a Dream Speech” from the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Justice is replayed and recited numerous times on his birthday, everywhere from elementary schools, to dinners and breakfasts, to marches, community celebrations, and on newscasts. He and Rosa Parks are often seen as “birth parents” of the Modern Civil Rights Movement, with the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott often being seen as the “birth event.” Montgomery was hugely important, of course, but seeing it as the birth event of the civil rights movement is far from accurate: there have been organized efforts to address the problems facing African Americans since colonial times. The NAACP had gone to court and won some travel segregation cases years before 1955, and there had been constant civil rights activity before the boycott all across the country. What Montgomery and its boycott marked was not the “birth of the movement.” What it marked was the birth of national awareness and attention to the movement. Civil Rights was now a nationwide issue and could not be ignored. Many people also tend to see Dr. King as the leader of the bus boycott, and that is not quite accurate, either. He did become the face of the boycott, but the reality of how that movement happened was more complicated and nuanced than the popular story has it. And it involves at least two other people who have not gotten much recognition due them but without whom there may never have been a boycott.
When Rosa Parks was arrested on December 1, 1955 for refusing to surrender her seat to a white passenger, she was not just “a woman tired from a long day of work.” She had already been involved in the civil rights struggle. She had attended sessions on both race relations and civil disobedience at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. She had been secretary for the Montgomery branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). She had investigated cases of sexual assault by white men against black women for the NAACP. And she had had an earlier unpleasant interaction with James Blake, the December 1 bus driver. Unlike the stories frequently told about her, she had been an activist for a while. and she had had enough.
In between Rosa’s arrest on December 1st and her trial on Monday, December 5th two notable things happened, both involving people who were pivotal in what became the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Jo Ann Robinson, leader of the Woman’s Political Council, had complained about Jim Crow segregated travel before. In fact she had warned the mayor of Montgomery in 1954 that a boycott would come soon to attack and overthrow the system. When word of Rosa’s arrest became known, she saw her chance. Jo Ann and her family, along with some associates, hand mimeographed and distributed some 35,000 flyers throughout the black community on Friday night and Saturday calling for a one-day boycott of the city buses on Monday, December 5- the day of Rosa’s trial. On Saturday, December 3rd, many of Montgomery’s African-Americans had heard about the planned action, and many of them did not ride the buses that Saturday. And come Monday, December 5th, the vast majority of Blacks didn’t ride. Buses were nearly empty, and the one-day boycott was a success. Monday night there was to be a mass meeting to see if the boycott should be continued.
Meanwhile, E.D. Nixon, head of the Montgomery NAACP and a labor leader, called a meeting of local Black ministers to discuss plans to respond to Rosa’s arrest. He, too, had been wanting to take action for years, and he, too, saw an opportunity. When Nixon met with the ministers he suggested they resolve to take further action, that they call themselves, The Montgomery Improvement Association, and that they choose a young minister new to Montgomery to be their spokesperson. He felt that a new person had not yet had time to be either intimidated or known by the city’s power structure and could be more effective. The ministers agreed, and they chose the 26 year-old Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to be their spokesperson. At that mass meeting Monday evening King made a short and very well received speech. The assembled crowd decided to continue the boycott, and King became the visible leader of the movement. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was now under way, largely due to the efforts of Jo Ann Robinson and E.D. Nixon.
Both Robinson and Nixon took very important roles during the boycott. Robinson had to be careful: she was a professor and could have lost her job. So she worked behind the scenes, editing the MIA’s weekly newsletterand arranging schedules for carpools, Black-owned taxis, and groups of people to walk together. She and the Women’s Political Council also raised money. Nixon was a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a nationwide black labor union. Through them he was able to raise badly needed money to buy and repair cars for the carpools, post bails, hire lawyers, and get food and other supplies. Along with Ralph Abernathy and other leaders, he also advised Dr. King and helped plan strategies to keep the pressure on the city despite the increased efforts by many whites-violent and non-violent- to break the boycott. Most importantly, Nixon recognized the power of the newly developed technology of television, and he saw what a perfect fit Dr. King was for it. He arranged to get Dr. King and the boycott repeatedly in front of national network news cameras and making what had been a local issue a national one. TV took both Dr. King and civil rights to a national and international stage, energizing the boycott, generating interest in civil rights, and giving it more recognition and support.
Jo Ann Robinson and E.D. Nixon are heroes of mine. I like to think of them as human versions of infrastructure; that necessary thing that holds something up, keeps it going, and enables it to function. Both of them played huge roles in keeping the boycott going-shoring up people’s spirits, keeping it organized, standing up to arrests, attacks and bombings, and helping maintain it for over a year. Without the two of them it is easy to imagine the boycott not being effective. They were crucial to its eventual success.
And as I think on Dr. King’s life over this next week I also like to think about all of those unsung people who played such vital parts throughout the movement: in the bus boycott, the voter registration activities, the marches, and more. I have to thank the ones who walked during the boycott, drove cars, got arrested, donated, listened, and sang the freedom songs. I have to acknowledge all of them. Particularly in this day and time it is important to remember that effective movements are about more than one leader, one organization or one event. There must be a strong and stable “us”-a committed, consistent, and long-lasting group of people willing and able to endure whatever it takes to sustain the movement and keep it going. It takes a village to raise a movement, and as Jo Ann Robinson and E.D. Nixon demonstrated, that human infrastructure is essential. Thank you, Jo Ann and E.D. You may be largely unknown, but your works are not.
Websites about Jo Ann Robinson and E.D. Nixon:
Tuesday, January 2, 2018
One of the things people do leading up to and just after the start of a new year is to look back at the year just passed and at the events that had an impact on us as a nation, as members of a group or groups, and as individuals. Newspapers, magazines, websites, and podcasts of all sorts do this as a regular part of doing what they do. It is a necessary attempt, I believe to “sum up;" to do that human thing of trying to make sense of what has happened and acknowledging certain things as ‘important’ or “vital” and to construct a narrative. We need to put things in some sort or order and find meaning from that. It is important that we do that.
It also, at least for me, reminds me of the effects of certain people and how what they said or did influenced me. So much of who I am, how I think, and what I do I owe to other people who encouraged me, provided an inspiration, gave me a new idea or new way of looking at things, or helped me see things in a new way. And in 2017, as in all years, I had the opportunity to think back on a number of people who played such a role in my life. I may not have known them personally, but they had an enormous impact on me and my thinking.
Dick Gregory was one such person. His scathing satire and on time stand-up comedy first caught my attention in the 1960’s with his TV appearances, records, and civil rights work. I got to see him live twice, and his pointed humor helped me develop some new ways of looking at this country. Two of his books, nigger, his autobiography, and No More Lies, his correction to the standard high school US history book, both influenced
how and what I taught over my long career in secondary education. While I certainly did not agree with all his positions, reading and listening to him taught me the importance of standing clearly for something and the importance of being willing to go beyond the accepted narrative. That is something that is still with me today, and I owe much of that to Dick Gregory.
Poet, essayist and playwright Derek Walcott introduced me to Caribbean culture and history with the play, Dream on Monkey Island. This allegorical play from the 1970’s found me right at the time I was looking at African and African-American history, and it expanded my research to include Black Caribbean culture as well. His epic poem, Osmero, was shown to me by a friend when we were discussing how ancient the use of poetry as metaphor was. In its use of themes and characters from the works of Homer it opened my eyes to how one could appropriate ideas from another culture and time to talk about what YOU wanted to talk about and say about the present. That struck me as a wonderfully freeing and powerful idea. And when I later taught Homer in some of my classes, I used Osmero to help kids find the relevance in his works to today’s issues. Thank you, Derek, for that.
There were two other major influences on my life whom we lost in 2017: rock and roll inventor Chuck Berry and harp player and singer James Cotton. I wrote about James in a newsletter last March after hearing about his death. James has influenced me more than any other bluesman, and I was fortunate to meet him many times when I was just starting out as a musician. His willingness to teach, his playing and especially his joy in being on stage are things that are still with me today. Thanks, Superharp.
I came late to Chuck’s work, I am sorry to say. In the late 1950’s when he was breaking out, I was still mostly into old-style blues and soul music. Radio was more segregated and genre-specific then, and I listened to WDAS and WHAT. They were Philly soul stations, and the saxophone was the big instrument in such music. Those stations did not play any guitar-driven rock. But when I got to junior high school, Chuck started to speak to me. It was the cleverness of the rhymes and lyrics which caught me first; I thought it was so cool that someone could put lyrics together like that and do it so fast and in such a rocking way. Then I got into the rhythm and the guitar playing, and when I saw him on TV shows I was knocked out. Again it was the sheer joy of the performance that held me. Music has always been joy to me, and I always loved folks who could put that joy across from the stage. Chuck and James both did that; what a gift.
So as we move on with 2018, I have to tip my hat to these and several other people we lost in 2017. It is good for me to look back and acknowledge how much I owe to these people and to be grateful for their influence. Without them, I probably wouldn’t be me. So I thank them for helping me be the me I am and the "me" I am still becoming. I could not do it without them, then or now. Thanks to all of you.
(Here are some links to pages about these people:
Tuesday, December 19, 2017
“Heading into the night of the winter solstice, every spiritual tradition has some kind of festival of light. We're all just whistling in the dark, hoping against hope that someone up there will see these little candles and get the hint.” Lawrence Kushner
“As it somehow always manages before the winter solstice, but never after, the early darkness was cheerful and promising, even for those who had nothing.” Mark Helprin
I am extremely fortunate to be living live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Living here I get to see each season for approximately an equal amount of time each year, and that is a delight. I love all of the seasons, both the seasons themselves and the transitions that lead up to them. People in this region get to fully experience the arrival of each season, see it develop over time, and then see and feel it fully emerge. And we get to delight in the simultaneous ending of one season and the slow deliberate arrival of the next. I think of all of this as the "endless cycle of the universe," and it has been here and continuing since time before time. I love this cycle, in part, because it links us to all the humans who have been here long before us and will be here long after us. And it links us all to the earth.
Humans have always noted, marked, responded to, and ritualized each of the aspects of this cycle. In all parts of the world we have created symbols, activities, images, music and more to show our deep dependence on and connections to this cycle, whether it has been about pure physical survival, deep emotional fear or hope, reverential worship, and/or deep spiritual love. Doing this is one of the things that seems to make us human; we can’t live in this world without doing it. And I love the coming of winter because it is one of those times when this connection between the cycle and our human need for ritual is so obvious. In all parts of the world the approach of winter is marked by big changes in climate and environment, and we respond. It either starts raining more or snowing. Fog may be more prevalent. Temperatures start to drop, trees, plants and crops go through noticeable changes, and the length of days-the amount of sunlight- changes. This hits a climax at the time of the winter solstice, the shortest day of the year, and the day after, when the days start getting longer. Whether in the Northern Hemisphere, when the winter solstice is in December, or in the Southern Hemisphere, when it is in June, humans have met these changes repeatedly with organized group activities-rituals. There were songs, stories, dances, symbols, and especially fire and light. In the Scandinavian countries Juul feasts involved bringing a Juul log (Yule log) into the house and burning it in the hearth to honor of the god of thunder, Thor and to acknowledge a new beginning. The ashes were kept in the house or on one’s person as a sign of the belief in the rebirth of the world and hope for a better and safer new year. In ancient Rome the solstice was met by Saturnalia, a feast dedicated to Saturn, the father of the gods. It involved a reversal of social order, symbolic fertility gifts of fruits and dolls, and candles. It was the birth-rebirth of the sun and the gods, and things were in chaos for a while until proper order was returned in the days following the solstice. In the Southern Hemisphere descendants of the Inca had the tradition Inti Ramya, a festival welcoming the New Year and involving, among other things, animal sacrifice and the origin story of the Inca. Shab-E-Yalda celebrated the triumph of Mithra the sun god in Iran, parts of Turkey and parts of Afghanistan. Gatherings featured poetry, song, bonfires and wishes/prayers to protect the community from darkness and from evil in the coming year. In all of these traditions there is both a mystical connection to light and some form of symbolic rebirth. These are universal themes of our solstice observances, for we seem to need to meet the winter darkness with light and hope.
The Christmas, Hanukkah and Kwanzaa celebrations with which we are familiar are likewise about light and rebirth. Like all rituals they have symbolic meanings for just about every phase of the observance. The lighting of the menorah candles in Hanukkah, for example, recall the miracle of the oil that lasted 8 days during the re-dedication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. It is also a rebirth story for both the Temple and for the religion, as it honors the fact that the Jews were able to withstand the attempt by Antiochus to destroy their religion. The story of the Star of Bethlehem in the Christmas story is also about light and rebirth, as Christians believe the story represents the birth of a new “light” for the world. It is also the first part of a longer story of re-birth that culminates with Easter. And the lights on Christmas trees and the date of December 25th show what happens when various cultures come together and their beliefs, symbols and rituals intermingle. They get re-interpreted and take on new meanings. Likewise, Kwanzaa with its candle,s affirms a reverence for the rebirth of links between people of African descent and the continent of Africa. It is intended to represent the birth of a new awareness of African origins; the daily candle lighting, similar to Hanukkah, represent a re-dedication to communal African values. So even if we may not be aware of it, all of these celebrations affirm our continual links to that cycle of the earth and our deep connections to humans from earlier times and places. We may think of ourselves as more “modern” or “advanced” than our ancestors, but scratch the surface of so much of what we do, and the links between them and us are there.
So however you observe the reality of the solstice, know that by doing so you are joining with thousands of years of human history to acknowledge our connection to and reverence for the cycle. It is one of the things it means to be a human animal; one of the things that mark us as different from other living things. Do have a wonderful season of contemplation joy, re-dedication, gift giving and good food. And do stop every now and then to notice the beauty and power of the lights against the darkness. For we are still working to meet the darkness with light.